Character entity references in HTML 4.0

[Eds. Note: contributed by David Gardiner]

A complete list of supported character entities from the HTML 4.0 standard. Each entity is named, and both a 'name' (of the form &xxxx;) and 'code' (of the form &#nnn;) sample are attempted (sometimes the code may work when the name doesn't).

Entity Code Named Coded Description
nbsp 160 " "" "no-break space = non-breaking space
iexcl 161 "¡""¡"inverted exclamation mark
cent 162 "¢""¢"cent sign
pound 163 "£""£"pound sign
curren 164 "¤""¤"currency sign
yen 165 "¥""¥"yen sign = yuan sign
brvbar 166 "¦""¦"broken bar = broken vertical bar
sect 167 "§""§"section sign
uml 168 "¨""¨"diaeresis = spacing diaeresis
copy 169 "©""©"copyright sign
ordf 170 "ª""ª"feminine ordinal indicator
laquo 171 "«""«"left-pointing double angle quotation mark= left pointing guillemet
not 172 "¬""¬"not sign
shy 173 "­""­"soft hyphen = discretionary hyphen
reg 174 "®""®"registered sign = registered trade mark sign
macr 175 "¯""¯"macron = spacing macron = overline = APL overbar
deg 176 "°""°"degree sign
plusmn 177 "±""±"plus-minus sign = plus-or-minus sign
sup2 178 "²""²"superscript two = superscript digit two = squared
sup3 179 "³""³"superscript three = superscript digit three = cubed
acute 180 "´""´"acute accent = spacing acute
micro 181 "µ""µ"micro sign
para 182 "¶""¶"pilcrow sign = paragraph sign
middot 183 "·""·"middle dot = Georgian comma = Greek middle dot
cedil 184 "¸""¸"cedilla = spacing cedilla
sup1 185 "¹""¹"superscript one = superscript digit one
ordm 186 "º""º"masculine ordinal indicator
raquo 187 "»""»"right-pointing double angle quotation mark = right pointing guillemet
frac14 188 "¼""¼"vulgar fraction one quarter fraction one quarter
frac12 189 "½""½"vulgar fraction one half fraction one half
frac34 190 "¾""¾"vulgar fraction three quarters fraction three quarters
iquest 191 "¿""¿"inverted question mark turned question mark
Agrave 192 "À""À"latin capital letter A with grave latin capital letter A grave
Aacute 193 "Á""Á"latin capital letter A with acute
Acirc 194 "Â""Â"latin capital letter A with circumflex
Atilde 195 "Ã""Ã"latin capital letter A with tilde
Auml 196 "Ä""Ä"latin capital letter A with diaeresis
Aring 197 "Å""Å"latin capital letter A with ring above latin capital letter A ring
AElig 198 "Æ""Æ"latin capital letter AE latin capital ligature AE
Ccedil 199 "Ç""Ç"latin capital letter C with cedilla
Egrave 200 "È""È"latin capital letter E with grave
Eacute 201 "É""É"latin capital letter E with acute
Ecirc 202 "Ê""Ê"latin capital letter E with circumflex
Euml 203 "Ë""Ë"latin capital letter E with diaeresis
Igrave 204 "Ì""Ì"latin capital letter I with grave
Iacute 205 "Í""Í"latin capital letter I with acute
Icirc 206 "Î""Î"latin capital letter I with circumflex
Iuml 207 "Ï""Ï"latin capital letter I with diaeresis
ETH 208 "Ð""Ð"latin capital letter ETH
Ntilde 209 "Ñ""Ñ"latin capital letter N with tilde
Ograve 210 "Ò""Ò"latin capital letter O with grave
Oacute 211 "Ó""Ó"latin capital letter O with acute
Ocirc 212 "Ô""Ô"latin capital letter O with circumflex
Otilde 213 "Õ""Õ"latin capital letter O with tilde
Ouml 214 "Ö""Ö"latin capital letter O with diaeresis
times 215 "×""×"multiplication sign
Oslash 216 "Ø""Ø"latin capital letter O with stroke latin capital letter O slash
Ugrave 217 "Ù""Ù"latin capital letter U with grave
Uacute 218 "Ú""Ú"latin capital letter U with acute
Ucirc 219 "Û""Û"latin capital letter U with circumflex
Uuml 220 "Ü""Ü"latin capital letter U with diaeresis
Yacute 221 "Ý""Ý"latin capital letter Y with acute
THORN 222 "Þ""Þ"latin capital letter THORN
szlig 223 "ß""ß"latin small letter sharp s = ess-zed
agrave 224 "à""à"latin small letter a with grave latin small letter a grave
aacute 225 "á""á"latin small letter a with acute
acirc 226 "â""â"latin small letter a with circumflex
atilde 227 "ã""ã"latin small letter a with tilde
auml 228 "ä""ä"latin small letter a with diaeresis
aring 229 "å""å"latin small letter a with ring above latin small letter a ring
aelig 230 "æ""æ"latin small letter ae latin small ligature ae
ccedil 231 "ç""ç"latin small letter c with cedilla
egrave 232 "è""è"latin small letter e with grave
eacute 233 "é""é"latin small letter e with acute
ecirc 234 "ê""ê"latin small letter e with circumflex
euml 235 "ë""ë"latin small letter e with diaeresis
igrave 236 "ì""ì"latin small letter i with grave
iacute 237 "í""í"latin small letter i with acute
icirc 238 "î""î"latin small letter i with circumflex
iuml 239 "ï""ï"latin small letter i with diaeresis
eth 240 "ð""ð"latin small letter eth
ntilde 241 "ñ""ñ"latin small letter n with tilde
ograve 242 "ò""ò"latin small letter o with grave
oacute 243 "ó""ó"latin small letter o with acute
ocirc 244 "ô""ô"latin small letter o with circumflex
otilde 245 "õ""õ"latin small letter o with tilde
ouml 246 "ö""ö"latin small letter o with diaeresis
divide 247 "÷""÷"division sign
oslash 248 "ø""ø"latin small letter o with stroke, latin small letter o slash
ugrave 249 "ù""ù"latin small letter u with grave
uacute 250 "ú""ú"latin small letter u with acute
ucirc 251 "û""û"latin small letter u with circumflex
uuml 252 "ü""ü"latin small letter u with diaeresis
yacute 253 "ý""ý"latin small letter y with acute
thorn 254 "þ""þ"latin small letter thorn with
yuml 255 "ÿ""ÿ"latin small letter y with diaeresis

24.3 Character entity references for symbols, mathematical symbols, and Greek letters

Latin Extended-B

Entity Code Named Coded Description
fnof 402 "ƒ""ƒ"latin small f with hook = function = florin


[1] there is no Sigmaf, and no U+03A2 character either
Entity Code Named Coded Description
Alpha 913 "Α""Α"greek capital letter alpha
Beta 914 "Β""Β"greek capital letter beta
Gamma 915 "Γ""Γ"greek capital letter gamma
Delta 916 "Δ""Δ"greek capital letter delta
Epsilon 917 "Ε""Ε"greek capital letter epsilon
Zeta 918 "Ζ""Ζ"greek capital letter zeta
Eta 919 "Η""Η"greek capital letter eta
Theta 920 "Θ""Θ"greek capital letter theta
Iota 921 "Ι""Ι"greek capital letter iota
Kappa 922 "Κ""Κ"greek capital letter kappa
Lambda 923 "Λ""Λ"greek capital letter lambda
Mu 924 "Μ""Μ"greek capital letter mu
Nu 925 "Ν""Ν"greek capital letter nu
Xi 926 "Ξ""Ξ"greek capital letter xi
Omicron 927 "Ο""Ο"greek capital letter omicron
Pi 928 "Π""Π"greek capital letter pi
Rho 929 "Ρ""Ρ"greek capital letter rho
Sigma 931 "Σ""Σ"greek capital letter sigma [1]
Tau 932 "Τ""Τ"greek capital letter tau
Upsilon 933 "Υ""Υ"greek capital letter upsilon
Phi 934 "Φ""Φ"greek capital letter phi
Chi 935 "Χ""Χ"greek capital letter chi
Psi 936 "Ψ""Ψ"greek capital letter psi
Omega 937 "Ω""Ω"greek capital letter omega
alpha 945 "α""α"greek small letter alpha
beta 946 "β""β"greek small letter beta
gamma 947 "γ""γ"greek small letter gamma
delta 948 "δ""δ"greek small letter delta
epsilon 949 "ε""ε"greek small letter epsilon
zeta 950 "ζ""ζ"greek small letter zeta
eta 951 "η""η"greek small letter eta
theta 952 "θ""θ"greek small letter theta
iota 953 "ι""ι"greek small letter iota
kappa 954 "κ""κ"greek small letter kappa
lambda 955 "λ""λ"greek small letter lambda
mu 956 "μ""μ"greek small letter mu
nu 957 "ν""ν"greek small letter nu
xi 958 "ξ""ξ"greek small letter xi
omicron 959 "ο""ο"greek small letter omicron
pi 960 "π""π"greek small letter pi
rho 961 "ρ""ρ"greek small letter rho
sigmaf 962 "ς""ς"greek small letter final sigma
sigma 963 "σ""σ"greek small letter sigma
tau 964 "τ""τ"greek small letter tau
upsilon 965 "υ""υ"greek small letter upsilon
phi 966 "φ""φ"greek small letter phi
chi 967 "χ""χ"greek small letter chi
psi 968 "ψ""ψ"greek small letter psi
omega 969 "ω""ω"greek small letter omega
thetasym 977 "ϑ""ϑ"greek small letter theta symbol
upsih 978 "ϒ""ϒ"greek upsilon with hook symbol
piv 982 "ϖ""ϖ"greek pi symbol

General Punctuation

[1] bullet is NOT the same as bullet operator
Entity Code Named Coded Description
bull 8226 "•""•"bullet = black small circle [1]
hellip 8230 "…""…"horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader
prime 8242 "′""′"prime = minutes = feet
Prime 8243 "″""″"double prime = seconds = inches
oline 8254 "‾""‾"overline = spacing overscore
frasl 8260 "⁄""⁄"fraction slash

Letterlike Symbols

alef symbol is NOT the same as hebrew letter alef, U+05D0 although the same glyph could be used to depict both characters
Entity Code Named Coded Description
weierp 8472 "℘""℘"script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p
image 8465 "ℑ""ℑ"blackletter capital I = imaginary part
real 8476 "ℜ""ℜ"blackletter capital R = real part symbol
trade 8482 "™""™"trade mark sign
alefsym 8501 "ℵ""ℵ"alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal


[1] Unicode does not say that lArr is the same as the 'is implied by' arrow but also does not have any other character for that function. So ? lArr can be used for 'is implied by' as ISOtech suggests
[2] Unicode does not say this is the 'implies' character but does not have another character with this function so rArr can be used for 'implies' as ISOtech suggests
Entity Code Named Coded Description
larr 8592 "←""←"leftwards arrow
uarr 8593 "↑""↑"upwards arrow
rarr 8594 "→""→"rightwards arrow
darr 8595 "↓""↓"downwards arrow
harr 8596 "↔""↔"left right arrow
crarr 8629 "↵""↵"downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return
lArr 8656 "⇐""⇐"leftwards double arrow [1]
uArr 8657 "⇑""⇑"upwards double arrow
rArr 8658 "⇒""⇒"rightwards double arrow [2]
dArr 8659 "⇓""⇓"downwards double arrow
hArr 8660 "⇔""⇔"left right double arrow

Mathematical Operators

[1] should there be a more memorable name than 'ni'? [2] prod is NOT the same character as U+03A0 'greek capital letter pi' though the same glyph might be used for both
[3] sum is NOT the same character as U+03A3 'greek capital letter sigma' though the same glyph might be used for both
[4] tilde operator is NOT the same character as the tilde although the same glyph might be used to represent both
[5] note that nsup, 'not a superset of font encoding and is not included. Should it be, for symmetry? It is in ISOamsn
[6] dot operator is NOT the same character as U+00B7 middle dot
Entity Code Named Coded Description
forall 8704 "∀""∀"for all
part 8706 "∂""∂"partial differential
exist 8707 "∃""∃"there exists
empty 8709 "∅""∅"empty set = null set = diameter
nabla 8711 "∇""∇"nabla = backward difference
isin 8712 "∈""∈"element of
notin 8713 "∉""∉"not an element of
ni 8715 "∋""∋"contains as member [1]
prod 8719 "∏""∏"n-ary product = product sign [2]
sum 8721 "∑""∑"n-ary sumation [3]
minus 8722 "−""−"minus sign
lowast 8727 "∗""∗"asterisk operator
radic 8730 "√""√"square root = radical sign
prop 8733 "∝""∝"proportional to
infin 8734 "∞""∞"infinity
ang 8736 "∠""∠"angle
and 8743 "∧""∧"logical and = wedge
or 8744 "∨""∨"logical or = vee
cap 8745 "∩""∩"intersection = cap
cup 8746 "∪""∪"union = cup
int 8747 "∫""∫"integral
there4 8756 "∴""∴"therefore
sim 8764 "∼""∼"tilde operator = varies with = similar to [4]
cong 8773 "≅""≅"approximately equal to
asymp 8776 "≈""≈"almost equal to = asymptotic to
ne 8800 "≠""≠"not equal to
equiv 8801 "≡""≡"identical to
le 8804 "≤""≤"less-than or equal to
ge 8805 "≥""≥"greater-than or equal to
sub 8834 "⊂""⊂"subset of
sup 8835 "⊃""⊃"superset of [5]
nsub 8836 "⊄""⊄"not a subset of
sube 8838 "⊆""⊆"subset of or equal to
supe 8839 "⊇""⊇"superset of or equal to
oplus 8853 "⊕""⊕"circled plus = direct sum
otimes 8855 "⊗""⊗"circled times = vector product
perp 8869 "⊥""⊥"up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular
sdot 8901 "⋅""⋅"dot operator [6]

Miscellaneous Technical

[1] lang is NOT the same character as U+003C 'less than' or U+2039 'single left-pointing angle quotation mark'
[2] rang is NOT the same character as U+003E 'greater than' or U+203A 'single right-pointing angle quotation mark'
Entity Code Named Coded Description
lceil 8968 "⌈""⌈"left ceiling = apl upstile
rceil 8969 "⌉""⌉"right ceiling
lfloor 8970 "⌊""⌊"left floor = apl downstile
rfloor 8971 "⌋""⌋"right floor
lang 9001 "⟨""〈"left-pointing angle bracket = bra [1]
rang 9002 "⟩""〉"right-pointing angle bracket = ket [2]

Geometric Shapes

Entity Code Named Coded Description
loz 9674 "◊""◊"lozenge

Miscellaneous Symbols

[1] black here seems to mean filled as opposed to hollow
Entity Code Named Coded Description
spades 9824 "♠""♠"black spade suit [1]
clubs 9827 "♣""♣"black club suit = shamrock
hearts 9829 "♥""♥"black heart suit = valentine
diams 9830 "♦""♦"black diamond suit

24.4 Character entity references for markup-significant and internationalization characters

C0 Controls and Basic Latin

Entity Code Named Coded Description
quot 34 """""" quotation mark = APL quote
amp 38 "&""&" ampersand
lt 60 "<""<" less-than sign
gt 62 ">"">" greater-than sign

Latin Extended-A

[1] ligature is a misnomer, this is a separate character in some languages
Entity Code Named Coded Description
OElig 338 "Œ""Œ" latin capital ligature OE
oelig 339 "œ""œ" latin small ligature oe [1]
Scaron 352 "Š""Š" latin capital letter S with caron
scaron 353 "š""š" latin small letter s with caron
Yuml 376 "Ÿ""Ÿ" latin capital letter Y with diaeresis

Spacing Modifier Letters

Entity Code Named Coded Description
circ 710 "ˆ""ˆ" modifier letter circumflex accent
tilde 732 "˜""˜" small tilde

General Punctuation

[1] lsaquo is proposed but not yet ISO standardized
[2] rsaquo is proposed but not yet ISO standardized
Entity Code Named Coded Description
ensp 8194 " "en space
emsp 8195 " "em space
thinsp 8201 " "thin space
zwnj 8204 "‌"zero width non-joiner
zwj 8205 "‍"zero width joiner
lrm 8206 "‎"left-to-right mark
rlm 8207 "‏"right-to-left mark
ndash 8211 "–"en dash
mdash 8212 "—"em dash
lsquo 8216 "‘"left single quotation mark
rsquo 8217 "’"right single quotation mark
sbquo 8218 "‚"single low-9 quotation mark
ldquo 8220 "“"left double quotation mark
rdquo 8221 "”"right double quotation mark
bdquo 8222 "„"double low-9 quotation mark
dagger 8224 "†"dagger
Dagger 8225 "‡"double dagger
permil 8240 "‰"per mille sign
lsaquo 8249 "‹"single left-pointing angle quotation mark [1]
rsaquo 8250 "›"single right-pointing angle quotation mark [2]
Entity Code Named Coded Description
euro 8364 "€" euro sign